The early flowering plant Viola tricolor takes the lead among many garden flowers. A diverse palette of colors is incredible: ranging from milky white to blue-black with many interspersed yellow, blue and red shades. As a rule, in the center is a spot of the original color. Garden violet is one of the oldest crops in horticulture.
The genus has about 500 species, and grows in a temperate climate throughout the northern hemisphere. Also, violet is found in Australia and New Zealand.
|The ancient Greeks and Romans wove violet flowers in wreaths and hung in houses as ornaments.|
Violet blooms quite early, and therefore is often used for landscaping garden plots, terraces and flower beds (usually two-year and perennial varieties are used). Florists complement flower arrangements with violets (annual varieties). 1 g contains up to 700 seeds, which retain germination for 2 years.
Planting and care for the violet in garden (Viola tricolor)
Variety selection. Depending on your desires, you can choose varieties of violets that bloom at different times: for example, Altai violets begin to bloom in spring; yellow and tricolor – in the summer; fragrant violet blooms in spring and early autumn.
Seat selection. Viola likes well-lit places, or slightly shaded. An ideal option is to place a flower bed under a tree, observing an interval of 15-20 cm between the bushes (too dense planting is fraught with the development of root rot on plants). Do not plant violets near ponds or artificial lakes – an excess of moisture will attract slugs to these beautiful flowers.
The soil. The soil should be loose and fertile. Poor and sandy soil must be fertilized with humus before planting violets. Take care of the drainage – water should not stagnate. If the soil is poor in minerals – inflorescences grow slowly and small.
Watering. Moderate watering is recommended. In dry weather, watering should be increased so that inflorescences continue to form (watered every other day and loosened the soil). But remember! Excess moisture adversely affects the plant (violet begins to rot). Overdried soil also negatively affects violets: the plant loses its decorative appearance, the flowers become either small and inconspicuous, or flowering ceases altogether.
Fertilizers. The key to good growth and decorative appearance of violets is mineral fertilizers. Nitrogen contributes to the development of dense green foliage, and phosphorus and potassium are helpers in brightly colored flowers.
|Add nitrogen fertilizers in moderation! An excess of nitrogen in the soil (and in a humid environment) increases the risk of developing fungal diseases.|
Care. Regularly nip off faded flowers – this manipulation prolongs flowering. Mineral fertilizers are used in late spring, summer, and early fall, in proportions of 35 g per 10 liters of water. In the cold season (especially in frost) shelter is needed: spruce branches or large leaves from trees.
Diseases and pests. Unfortunately, even if the gardener carefully looks after the plant, the likelihood of pests or diseases is quite high. The main thing is to take timely measures to eliminate parasites. For example, spraying with topsin-M will help from powdery mildew (on the first day, and on day 12). When spotting, the plant weakens gradually, but rather destructively: remove the remains of infected leaves, spray with foundationazole every 12 days. Gray rot is formed from an excess of moisture and poor lighting: it is necessary to remove infected areas, careful watering, spraying with Topsin-M. From the caterpillars, spraying with chlorophos or tobacco infusion will help.
Propagation of violets in the garden (Viola tricolor)
The best way to reproduce is self-sowing. Leave the seed boxes in place and the seedlings will appear in the fall or next spring. Seedlings planted in time will allow you to constantly have violets in the garden. Purchased seedlings easily take root and plant in early spring. Propagation by cuttings or division of the bush is applied to three-year-old plants and older. At this age, dividing the bush is recommended, since usually it grows strongly, and the size of the inflorescence, on the contrary, decreases. Cuttings are cut from May to July (a cut is made from the top of the shoot with 2-3 knots on it), rooting lasts about a month, and new plants begin to bloom this year. With later cuttings, the plants will bloom next year.
Seeds of annual varieties are sown in early March, two-year-old in June or July (seedlings dive a couple of weeks after the appearance of two permanent leaves). In August – September, a transplant to a permanent place is necessary, observing the interval between future bushes. Flowering will begin next year.